The Max Planck Institute of Biophysics originated from the "Medina Institute of Physics" founded by the citizens of Frankfurt in 1921. In February 1948, the Institute was re-established as the Max Planck Institute of Biophysics under the chairmanship of Otto Hahn. Research has focused on proteins embedded in or associated with biofilms. As connections between the fluid inside and around cells, these membrane proteins control the transport of substances and the transmission of information within living organisms. As such, they play an important role in studying body functions and diseases or in developing new drugs. Membrane proteins act as channels, transporters or molecular sensors for the exchange of materials and information between cells and their environment, and are also important for intracellular transport. Scientists at the institute used electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography to analyze the structure of the proteins. As an ideal complement to experimental studies, these molecular processes are also modelled in computers in order to describe them quantitatively and understand the underlying mechanisms in detail.