2022
07/12
相关创新主体

    创新背景

    文物保护技术是文物保护的最重要保障,人工进行文物信息采集工作需要大量的时间和精力,以及足够的经验和娴熟的技巧。利用新兴前沿技术进行文物信息采集,可以提高文物保护的效率。

    创新过程

    人工手持扫描采集文物信息需要扫描者有足够的经验,在不干扰文物状态的情况下完成信息采集。2022年,西北大学的教师许阳利用光电仪器的原理和机械技术研发出可以替代人工手持扫描文物的机器人。机器人可以旋转环绕180度,一键式自动扫描,几分钟后就能完成对一尊兵马俑形状与纹理数据采集合成,并且能将采集到的数据合成画像,留存文物形象。

    机器人利用机器视觉和机械臂等技术,耗时1年研发成功。机器视觉是一项包括图像处理、机械工程技术、控制、电光源照明、光学成像、 传感器 、模拟与数字视频技术、计算机软硬件技术 (图像增强和分析算法、图像卡、 I/O 卡等)的综合技术。典型的机器视觉应用系统包括图像捕捉、光源系统、图像数字化模块、数字图像处理模块、智能判断决策模块和机械控制执行模块,可以提高生产的灵活性和自动化程度。机械臂系统包括模块化机械臂和灵巧手两部分,是一个高精度、多输入多输出、高度非线性、强耦合的复杂系统,存在着参数摄动、外界干扰及未建模动态等不确定性。因此,机械臂的建模模型也存在着不确定性,对于不同的任务,需要规划机械臂关节空间的运动轨迹,从而级联构成末端位姿。

    新型机器人是专门用于文物信息采集的装置,名为文物外观快速采集建模装置。机器人的视觉部分由结构光三维扫描仪与高分辨率彩色相机构成,名为文物外观数据采集模块。通过条纹投射器向文物表面投射结构光,并借助两台工业相机拍摄的结构光图像,对结构光进行解码。配合机械臂的运动还有转台的旋转,就可以完整采集文物表面的三维形貌。

    机器人使用的机械臂长度大致有1.5米,可以替代人工采集文物外观数据,促使文物自动进行数字化采集。机械臂类似于躯体,大直径旋转平台形同双脚。采集过程中,文物会保持静止状态一直处于旋转平台中央的非旋转区域。机械臂承载了文物外观数据采集模块的机械臂,布置在旋转平台两侧,通过各自环绕文物旋转180度隔空进行拍摄,实现文物外观数据的完整采集,最大限度地减少对文物的干扰破坏。
    研究人员表示,以一尊兵马俑为例,人工手持扫描采集大约要花半天时间。使用文物外观快速采集建模装置,通过自动扫描键,耗时约5分钟就能完成整个扫描步骤。然后按一下自动处理按钮,可以计算出文物表面的三维数据。文物形状与纹理数据的自动采集与合成全程不超过10分钟。

    此外,测量精度的提高也是该项技术的显著优势。机器人采样密度非常高,点云的点距最小可达0.1毫米,纹理信息的采集分辨率达到0.05毫米,测量精度远胜以往的技术。

    创新关键点

    利用机器视觉和机械臂等技术研发文物外观扫描采集合成机器人,提高文物信息采集效率,促进文物保护数字化发展。

    创新价值

    使用机器人的数字化采集方式显著提升了文物信息采集效率,促进文物保护工作高效进行。

    Robot scanning of cultural relics can quickly improve the efficiency of information collection

    Manual handheld scanning to collect cultural relics information requires the scanner to have enough experience to complete the information collection without interfering with the status of the cultural relics. In 2022, Xu Yang, a teacher at Northwest University, used the principles and mechanical technology of optoelectronic instruments to develop a robot that can replace manual handheld scanning of cultural relics. The robot can rotate around 180 degrees, one-click automatic scanning, and after a few minutes, it can complete the collection and synthesis of the shape and texture data of a terracotta army, and can synthesize the collected data into a portrait to retain the image of cultural relics.

    Using technologies such as machine vision and robotic arms, the robot took one year to develop. Machine vision is a comprehensive technology including image processing, mechanical engineering technology, control, electric light source illumination, optical imaging, sensors, analog and digital video technology, computer hardware and software technology (image enhancement and analysis algorithms, image cards, I/O cards, etc.). Typical machine vision application systems include image capture, light source systems, image digitization modules, digital image processing modules, intelligent judgment decision modules, and mechanical control execution modules, which can improve the flexibility and automation of production. The robotic arm system includes two parts, the modular robotic arm and the dexterous hand, which is a complex system with high precision, multiple inputs and multiple outputs, high nonlinearity, and strong coupling, with uncertainties such as parameter perturbation, external interference, and unmodeled dynamics. Therefore, there is also uncertainty in the modeling model of the robotic arm, and for different tasks, it is necessary to plan the motion trajectory of the joint space of the robotic arm, so as to cascade the end posture.

    The new robot is a device specially used for the collection of cultural relics information, called the rapid collection and modeling device for the appearance of cultural relics. The visual part of the robot is composed of a structured light three-dimensional scanner and a high-resolution color camera, called the cultural relics appearance data acquisition module. Structured light is projected onto the surface of the artifact by a striped projector and decoded with the help of structured light images taken by two industrial cameras. With the movement of the robotic arm and the rotation of the turntable, the three-dimensional morphology of the surface of the cultural relics can be completely collected.

    The length of the robotic arm used by the robot is about 1.5 meters, which can replace the manual collection of cultural relics appearance data and promote the automatic digital collection of cultural relics. The robotic arm resembles a torso, and the large-diameter rotating platform resembles a foot. During the collection process, the artifacts remain stationary and remain in the non-rotating area in the center of the rotating platform. The mechanical arm carries the mechanical arm of the cultural relics appearance data collection module, which is arranged on both sides of the rotating platform, and shoots by rotating 180 degrees around the cultural relics to achieve the complete collection of cultural relics appearance data and minimize the interference and damage to cultural relics.

    The researchers said that in the case of a terracotta warrior, it takes about half a day to collect an artificial handheld scan. Using the artifact appearance quickly capture modeling device, the entire scanning step can be completed in about 5 minutes by automatically scanning the key. Then press the Auto Process button to calculate the three-dimensional data on the surface of the artifact. The automatic collection and synthesis of cultural relics shape and texture data takes no more than 10 minutes.

    In addition, the improvement of measurement accuracy is a significant advantage of this technology. The sampling density of the robot is very high, the point distance of the point cloud can reach a minimum of 0.1 mm, and the collection resolution of texture information reaches 0.05 mm, and the measurement accuracy is far better than the previous technology.

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