2022
07/12
相关创新主体

    创新背景

    历史遗址在时间中不断受损,采用高新技术可以帮助修复保护文化遗产,并优化文物的保护管理。

     

    创新过程

    庞贝古城位于意大利南部城市那不勒斯附近,始建于公元前4世纪,公元79年毁于维苏威火山大爆发。因为火山灰的掩埋,街道房屋保存比较完整,是意大利保存最为完整的古罗马城市遗址。从1748年起开始进行考古发掘,为了解古罗马社会生活和文化艺术提供了重要资料。2011年起,考古公园与瑞典的大学合作,利用无人机和激光扫描仪对古城遗址进行扫描测绘,三维建模技术帮助绘制了古城的街区地图。

    2015年5月,考古学家和科学家对千年前被掩埋在火山灰下的庞贝城居民化石进行修复。利用前沿新兴技术重现古城中的建筑和内饰。庞贝考古公园建立了一支55人的团队,包括考古学家、建筑师和修复人员等,采取无人机、传感器和红外技术监测遗址的天气状况并进行持续记录,以应对极端天气,尽力降低气候变化、极端天气和灾害等对历史遗址的消极影响,提高预测和应对能力。

    庞贝考古公园文物众多,一直在不断出土,游客也络绎不绝。自然和人为因素为文物保护工作带来了挑战,公园因此不断引入高新技术,借助无人机、机器人和虚拟现实能优化对文物的保护管理,在高效保护文物的同时为游客提供更好的体验。
    在欧盟的资金支持下,2021年9月,意大利技术研究院联合多所国内外高校和研究机构开启庞贝古城的文物修复保护项目,利用机器人技术修复发掘古迹中的受损壁画。

    团队不断提升机器人性能,专门为机器人的手臂配备触觉、动觉和位置传感器,使其能够精准小心地抓取文物碎片,并仔细移动和定位大小与重量各异的碎片,在此过程中同时收集碎片信息。研究人员将每块壁画的碎片进行数字化转变形成大型资料库,促使机器人记忆学习,抓取收集碎片更加精准高效。

    项目协调人表示,目前全球博物馆的仓库中藏有许多文物碎片,许多已经闲置多年。修复项目所采用的机器人或许可以帮助更多博物馆复原类似文物。

    高新技术在庞贝考古公园中被高效利用,2022年,公园配备了一只名叫“点点”的机器狗,配置有摄像头和传感器,可以在公园内四处巡逻,深入极度狭小的空间中收集记录并研究规划相关数据。机器狗的使用不仅可以识别结构和安全问题,为开展保护工程提供参考;还可以检查文物盗窃现场,协助管理机构开展对古城的研究和保护工作,进入盗墓者挖掘的地道并发现犯罪线索,以帮助打击文物盗窃行为。


     

    创新关键点

    利用无人机、机器人、激光扫描等高新技术与历史文物保护相结合,帮助庞贝古城地图测绘、文物保护和优化管理。

    创新价值

    结合高新技术和历史文物,拓展历史遗迹保护的方式,促进文物保护工作发展。

    High technology helps pompeii to protect and manage

    Located near the southern Italian city of Naples, Pompeii was founded in the 4th century BC and destroyed in 79 AD by the great eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Because of the volcanic ash burial, the street houses are relatively well preserved, and it is the most complete preserved ancient Roman city site in Italy. Archaeological excavations began in 1748 and provided important materials for understanding the social life and culture and art of ancient Rome. Since 2011, the Archaeological Park has partnered with universities in Sweden to scan and map the ruins of the ancient city using drones and laser scanners, and 3D modeling technology has helped map the neighborhoods of the ancient city.

    In May 2015, archaeologists and scientists restored fossils of pompeii residents buried under volcanic ash thousands of years ago. Recreate the architecture and interiors of ancient cities with cutting-edge emerging technologies. Pompeii Archaeological Park has established a team of 55 people, including archaeologists, architects and restorers, to monitor and continuously record the weather conditions of the site using drones, sensors and infrared technology to cope with extreme weather, try to reduce the negative impact of climate change, extreme weather and disasters on the historical site, and improve prediction and response capabilities.

    The Pompeii Archaeological Park has a large number of artifacts that have been excavated continuously, and tourists are also flocking. Natural and human factors have brought challenges to the conservation of cultural relics, so the park continues to introduce high-tech, with the help of drones, robots and virtual reality can optimize the protection and management of cultural relics, in the efficient protection of cultural relics while providing visitors with a better experience.

    With the financial support of the European Union, in September 2021, the Italian Institute of Technology, together with a number of domestic and foreign universities and research institutions, launched the Pompeii Cultural Relics Restoration and Protection Project, using robotic technology to restore damaged murals in excavated monuments.The team continually improved the robot's performance, specifically equipping the robot's arm with tactile, kinesthetic and position sensors, enabling it to accurately and carefully grasp the fragments of cultural relics, and carefully move and locate fragments of different sizes and weights, while collecting fragment information in the process. The researchers digitized the fragments of each mural into a large database, prompting robots to memorize and learn, and to grasp and collect fragments more accurately and efficiently.

    The project coordinator said that there are currently many artifact fragments in the warehouses of museums around the world, many of which have been idle for many years. The robots used in the restoration project may help more museums restore similar artifacts.

    High-tech is being used efficiently in the Pompeii Archaeological Park, and in 2022, the park is equipped with a robotic dog called "Diandian", equipped with cameras and sensors, which can patrol around the park, deep into the extremely small space to collect records and study planning related data. The use of robot dogs can not only identify structural and safety problems, but also provide a reference for carrying out protection projects; It is also possible to inspect the site of cultural relics theft, assist the management agency in carrying out research and protection of the ancient city, enter the tunnels dug by tomb robbers and find clues to crimes to help combat cultural relics theft.

    智能推荐

    • 药物摄入可能会增加高温引起的心肌梗死风险

      2022-08-02

      耶鲁大学的陈凯团队通过对2494名患者的数据进行研究分析,认为服用抗血小板药物和β受体阻滞剂这两种常规心血管疾病治疗药物,将会提升患者非致命高温相关的心脏病风险。这一发现可以有助于开发针对性策略,降低与温度上升有关的心血管疾病负担。

      涉及学科
      涉及领域
      关键词 
    • 连续机器人可到达未开发区域,拓展机器人使用范围

      2022-08-15

      创新设计开发可弯曲、可扩展却细长柔软的连续机器人,拓展机器人的使用范围,用于医学领域可帮助医生更高效地进行手术。

      涉及学科
      涉及领域
      关键词 
    • 利用细菌可将二氧化碳转化为化学品

      2022-08-04

      利用细菌菌株开发气体发酵工艺,回收二氧化碳制作丙酮和异丙醇。

      涉及学科
      涉及领域
      关键词 
    • 癌细胞在睡眠期间加速分裂和转移扩散

      2022-07-02

      该研究发现了一个令人惊讶的现象:这种致命性的癌细胞转移,主要发生在睡眠期间。乳腺癌的转移扩散在睡眠期间会加速,而这是由决定昼夜节律的激素所调控的。这些发现将对乳腺癌等癌症的治疗产生重要影响。

      涉及学科
      涉及领域
      关键词